Toxicopathological Determination of Safe Dose Ranges of Neonicotinoids for Honey Bee Colonies

The ‘gold standard’ mammalian safety toxicopathological tests are very sensitive and reproducible examinations used by veterinary pathologists in the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies to detect sublethal toxic effects of candidate drugs, pesticides and other chemicals in laboratory animals to determine the safe dose range of these medications/chemicals for humans and animals. However, comparable toxicopathological approaches using histopathology have not been developed for honey bees.